Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and W. Harris (McMaster University)

An international team of astronomers, led by a physicist at St Andrew’s University, has revived another theory of gravity.

Drs lead this study. Indranil Banik of the School of Physics and Astronomy in St Andrews revealed a small galaxy’s predicted gas circulation speed in line with a previously decimated theory known as Milgromian Dynamics (MOND).

A previous study of gas circulation velocity in the small galaxy AGC 114905 (Mancera Pina et al., 2022) found that the gas circulated slowly and said that the MOND theory was dead.

According to well-known natural sciences, such concepts are crucial to understanding the Universe because galaxies revolve so fast that they have to fly separately. MOND, another controversial alternative to General Relativity, is Einstein’s inspired understanding of the action of gravity that requires dark matter to hold galaxies together; it does not need something dark. Since black objects have not been detected despite decades of intensive research, various theories have been put to explain what holds galaxies together, and the debate is raging. The low rotation speed reported in the Mancera Pina et al. study does not match the predictions in the Universe controlled by General Relativity with a large number of dark matter.

The team of Drs. Banik argues that the predicted high rotation speed in the MOND theory of gravity is consistent with observations when the galaxy’s orientation is overestimated.

The orbits of stars and gas in distant galaxies cannot be precisely measured, and only the part near the visual line is known for accurate spectroscopic measurements. If the Universe is viewed almost directly, it will usually rotate inside the sky plane. This may mislead viewers into thinking that the galaxy is spinning too slowly, which may require them to balance the proportions between disk planes and the sky. This trend was measured because the Universe appears elliptical (see photo).

New research has explored this critical issue using MOND’s detailed mimicry of the disc – AGC 114905 disk made at the University of Bonn by Srikanth Nagesh and inspired by Pavel Kroupa, Professor at Bonn University and Charles University in Prague. Imitation shows that it can appear elliptical in some way, even when viewed face to face. This is because the stars and the galaxy in the galaxy have a gravitational pull and can pull them off a non-circular motion. The exact process results in extra arms on disk galaxies features so commonly that these are often referred to as orbiting galaxies. This could mean that the Universe is spinning faster than reported, eliminating MOND tensions.

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